Chronic pruritus requires careful evaluation for primary dermatologic or systemic causes. In addition to treatment of the underlying cause, when identified, various.

Eine selten auftretende Hauterkrankung ist die Verdickung der Epidermisder Oberhaut. Mit Tylom beschreibt der Mediziner die umgangssprachlich Hornhaut genannte Hautverdickung. Zumeist werden bereits bei der Untersuchung konkrete Diagnosen augenscheinlich, da sich die Formen der Hautverdickungen unterscheiden und ein typisches Aussehen aufweisen.

Unbehandelt wird die Hautverdickung oft als ein kosmetischer Makel empfunden. Unwohlsein und eine Herabsetzung des Here stellen sich ein. Dies kann als angenehm und sowohl als unangenehm empfunden werden.

Auch hier kann es zu Nebenwirkungen kommen. Sie besteht aus mehreren Schichten. Bekannt sind Hautverdickungen bei der Neurodermitis sowie verschiedenen Hautreizungen und Hautallergien. Alle diese Hauterkrankungen sollten einem Hautarzt vorgestellt werden. Gestaltet sich dies schwierig oder lichenification bei Psoriasis es dabei zur Hautverletzung, wird lichenification bei Psoriasis Zeit, den Arzt aufzusuchen.

Gelegentlich kann eine Hautverdickung auch als Knoten auftreten. Bei einer Hautverdickung kommt es nicht in jedem Fall zu Beschwerden, sodass diese nicht zwingend lichenification bei Psoriasis einen Arzt behandelt werden muss. In diesem Fall kann es sich um eine andere Erkrankung handeln. Aufgrund dessen verschwindet die Milch Distelöl in zumeist, wenn extreme Temperaturen vermieden werden.

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The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Lichenification bei Psoriasis is a frequent symptom in many dermatological diseases. In this review we want to focus on not only itch problems specific to women, namely, pruritic vulvodermatoses, but also the specific pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy. The specific characteristics of the vulva and the hormonal changes during the different age periods make these dermatoses very particular.

It seems that vulvar diseases are still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Pruritic vulvar diseases have here huge impact on quality of life. The most common pruritic diseases will be discussed, such as atopic and contact dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen sclerosis, lichen planus, and infectious vulvaginitis.

We focus on the diagnostic issue of these diseases and will consider the general go here of therapy. In this review we want to focus on not only itch problems specific to women, namely, pruritic inflammatory vulvar dermatoses, but also lichenification bei Psoriasis specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Considering these dermatoses we have to take into account the following points: The changing level of estrogens leads lichenification bei Psoriasis changes in hydration, collagen content, and concentration of glycosaminoglycans.

In addition there will be also changes in vulvovaginal pH and microflora compositions [ 1 ]. Vulvovaginal pH is high in childhood, but in puberty the pH starts to decrease from an average of 7 to an average of 4 in adult women.

Lactobacilli start lichenification bei Psoriasis colonize the vulvovaginal area. In the first half of the hormonal cycle estrogen levels rise and vulvovaginal epithelial cells proliferate. In the second half of the cycle, which is progesterone mediated, the keratinocytes desquamate. There are also changes of the bacterial flora lichenification bei Psoriasis the hormonal cycle. Also the pH levels are lichenification bei Psoriasis to fluctuate lichenification bei Psoriasis eventually cause pruritus; an increase of pH may activate the proteinase-activated receptor-2 PAR-2 which is a well-known itch mediator.

Due to the decrease of estrogens, vaginal pH is going to rise lichenification bei Psoriasis menopause [ 1 ]. The commonest vulvar dermatosis in both adults and children is dermatitis. The majority of these patients are atopic [ 2 ]. In prepubertal girls atopic and irritant dermatitis occurs often together. Clinical examination shows erythematous and scaly labia majora with frequently rugosity, due to lichenification.

The labia minora may be erythematous and scaly. The itch is constant, and the dermatosis is fluctuating. Irritant contact dermatitis may be due to poor hygiene habits or excess use of soap or prolonged lichenification bei Psoriasis of wet swimming suits. Allergic contact dermatitis is very unusual in children because the exposition to potential allergens is low [ 2 ].

It may lichenification bei Psoriasis the presentation of other dermatoses. Theoretically there is an increased risk for sensitization: The predominant symptom is itch, but burning and pain may also be present, especially if fissures occur.

Clinical examination shows erythema and swelling and in chronic cases lichenification is frequently present Figure 1. Common irritants include soaps, antiseptics, lubricants, spermicides, tampons, sanitary pads, and synthetic underwear. Several studies have highlighted the usefulness of patch testing in case of vulval pruritus [ 4 — 6 ].

A prospective study showed a very high rate of contact sensitivity in patients presenting with lichenification bei Psoriasis pruritus. Many relevant allergens did not belong to the European standard series so there is a need for extended patch testing. Topical anesthetics and antibiotics, preservatives, dyes, and perfumes are potential allergens.

In order to get a complete list of all the topical applications that women use, do take into account that women regularly use preparations available over the counter. Excessive cleansing of the vulvar skin, as well as urinary and fecal incontinence, may also precipitate to an lichenification bei Psoriasis dermatitis.

Finally estrogen-deficient patients are particularly prone to irritant contact dermatitis [ 8 ]. Management consists in the removal of all irritants and potential allergens and application of topical steroids until the skin returns to normal. Lichen sclerosus LS is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown lichenification bei Psoriasis first described by Hallopeau in as an atrophic form of lichen planus [ 9 ]. Most cases are seen in prepubertal girls or in postmenopausal women.

A possible association with psoriasis has been suggested [ 10 ]. Classically it is taught that LS does not affect the vagina, in contrast to lichen planus, which is an important clue in the differential diagnosis. A few cases of LS with vaginal involvement have been reported [ 9 ]. Atrophy, erosions, fissures, and ecchymoses may also be present. In advanced cases a loss of genital architecture may occur with subsequent effacement of lichenification bei Psoriasis labia minora and clitoris Figure 2.

In most cases the itch is predominant but some women will complain more of soreness, burning, and pain. Some pediatric cases resolve with puberty, while others may continue to adulthood. The authors who presented very recently lichenification bei Psoriasis 2 new cases of LS with vaginal involvement put the question forward if this is not underdiagnosed because the vagina may not be examined carefully for LS or because lesions may be subtle or atypical.

Both presented cases had significant pelvic organ prolapse and so the vaginal mucosa was more chronically exposed. This brings into question whether squamatization of the vaginal mucosa may play a role in the development of the vaginal LS lesions [ 9 ]. Lichenification bei Psoriasis consists of high potency topical corticosteroids, also in younger patients; however, it is proposed to use not the most potent preparations in these younger patients.

The prevalence of lichen planus LP in the genital area is much lower than lichen sclerosus [ 11 ]. Differential diagnosis source lichen sclerosus is not always easy.

Lichen sclerosus is normally lichenification bei Psoriasis to the vulva while lichen planus may affect the vulva as well as the vagina. Other localizations such as the scalp, oral mucosa, skin, and nails may help to confirm the diagnosis of lichen planus. Women complain of soreness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia. Three types of vulvar lichen planus have been described: Erosive LP is characterized by erosions involving gehärtetes Gebet introitus, clitoris and clitoral hood, labia minora and majora.

A lacy white edge to the erosions is regularly seen. Healing erosions may appear as a glazed erythema. Vaginal involvement is very common and presents with vaginal erythema, contact bleeding, erosions, and scarring with synechiae. In rare cases vaginal lesions may be the lichenification bei Psoriasis manifestation.

Very recently diagnostic criteria for erosive LP of the vulva have been lichenification bei Psoriasis [ 13 ]. The classical type presents with small purple, polygonal papules, with sometimes a reticulate lace pattern. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is rather frequent in the flexures.

Hyperkeratotic lichen planus presents as lichenification bei Psoriasis or multiple white-hyperkeratotic papules and plaques. Many patients present with a mix of different clinical lichenification bei Psoriasis. A very recent study documents that a significant percentage of patients with vulval LP have associated lichen planopilaris [ 14 ]. The commonest pattern of scalp lichen planopilaris was that of the frontal fibrosing alopecia variant UFO Kamms in psoriasis All of these FFA patients also had oral LP.

Treatment consists in the first place of topical steroids. Classical LP is normally treated with a moderately potent topical corticosteroid. For lichenification bei Psoriasis disease very potent topical corticosteroid is indicated. A hypertrophic lesion that responds poorly to treatment requires a biopsy to rule out a malignant lesion. Erosive vulvovaginal lichen planus is difficult-to-treat dermatosis, lichenification bei Psoriasis is usually chronic and persistent.

Systemic therapy has to be taken into consideration if local therapy is insufficient. Because of the rare risk of squamous cell carcinoma, a long term follow-up is necessary. The clinical presentation of lichen simplex chronicus is also typical on the vulva: Lichen simplex chronicus may occur secondary to pruritic conditions such as lichen sclerosus or contact dermatitis.

It is also important to take neuropathic itch into consideration as etiology of lichen simplex chronicus. This could be associated with sacral spinal compression, postherpetic neuralgia, and diabetic neuropathy [ 1 ].

Psoriatic lesions on the vulva are more common in children than in adults. There is no difference in the clinical presentation of psoriasis of the vulva in children and adults. In babies it may initially present as napkin psoriasis. Clinical examination shows itchy well-demarcated symmetric red plaques without scaling in the vulvar and perianal regions.

The vagina is spared. Genital itch in psoriatic women is very common. A Polish study revealed a high prevalence of vulvar itching and or burning lichenification bei Psoriasis women with psoriasis.

Creme für fit Preis Psoriasis this vulvar discomfort and accompanying psoriasis had a significant influence on the psychosocial wellbeing of the patients [ 15 ].

Treatment is similar in adults and children and consists of moderated-to-potent topical corticosteroids. In prepubertal girls a A betahemolytic streptococcal infection can cause vulvar lichenification bei Psoriasis. In the acute form there is a sudden onset learn more here an erythematous swollen painful vulva and lichenification bei Psoriasis with a thin mucoid discharge.

The subacute form presents as pruritic erythematous patches and plaques in the vulvar and perianal regions [ 2 lichenification bei Psoriasis. These infections are diagnosed by vaginal and perianal swabs.

The origin of the infection is thought to be a pharyngeal infection; however, clinical signs are not always present. Treatment consists of oral lichenification bei Psoriasis or amoxycilline.

Lichenification bei Psoriasis is a common cause of vulvar and perianal pruritus in children. It may be associated with eczematous lesions and is treated with mebendazole. Vulvovaginal candidiasis does not occur normally before menarche.

On the contrary, many women of reproductive age experience one or more episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. It is an estrogen dependent process, so it occurs almost exclusively in the reproductive years, especially in the lichenification bei Psoriasis period, when hormone levels are high. Pregnancy, antibiotic use, hormonal contraceptive medication and hormone replacement therapy, and tamoxifen may increase estrogen levels and could be responsible for learn more here frequent colonization and infections [ 1 ].

Also changes in the immune system, such as diabetes, HIV, thyroid disease, lupus, and corticosteroid use lichenification bei Psoriasis cause yeast infections. Not all patients at lichenification bei Psoriasis develop Candida infections. Genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. Common polymorphisms in genes of the lichenification bei Psoriasis system have been associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis [ 16 ].

Patients complain of itching and burning of the vulva and also a white discharge and vulvovaginal redness. Reliable diagnosis is based on the correlation of clinical features with mycological evidence [ 17 ]. In most of the cases, Candida albicans is responsible. An asymptomatic colonization does not need to be treated, except in case of immunosuppression or chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis [ 18 ]. For the treatment of an acute lichenification bei Psoriasis candidiasis, polyenes, imidazoles, or ciclopiroxolamine in local therapy are proposed or oral triazoles for 1 to 6 days [ 18 ].

In case of chronic recurrent C. A German recommendation proposes a prophylactic local treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candida colonization during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy to protect the baby during vaginal delivery.

A significant reduction of neonatal candida infection rates was observed [ 18 ]. Other species such as C. Pruritus is also a very prominent symptom of the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy previously known as pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy occurs in lichenification bei Psoriasis latest pregnancy weeks or immediately postpartum. It is associated with primigravida, excessive maternal weight gain, and multiple pregnancies [ 21 ].

The pathophysiology is unknown, but a relationship with see more of the collagen fibers due to distension and overstretching of skin is suspected [ 22 ].

These lesions start within the striae distensae on the abdomen and spread to the buttocks and the proximal extremities. The rash spares very typically the umbilical region. The rash generally resolves within 6 weeks. Recurrences are very rare and are only reported in case of multiple pregnancies. Histopathology is not specific, so normally diagnosis is made by clinical picture and history. Treatment consists of topical corticosteroids with or without antihistamines.

Pemphigoid gestationis, formally known as herpes gestationis, is a rare bullous autoimmune disease, which normally occurs in the second half of the pregnancy or immediately postpartum. The pathogenesis of this disease is based on the production of circulating immunoglobulin G antibodies lichenification bei Psoriasis bind to bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 BP in the hemidesmosomes of the dermoepidermal junction, which results in the damage of the membrane and the production of tense bullae.

Clinical lichenification bei Psoriasis shows typically tense bullae like in bullous pemphigoid in the neighbourhood of urticarial lesions. The lesions start on the abdomen and do not spare the lichenification bei Psoriasis region and there is no association with the striae distensae. The lesions may involve the total body, but there is no mucosal involvement. The diagnosis is confirmed by histology and especially direct immunofluorescence which shows a linear C3 along the dermoepidermal junction.

Pemphigoid gestationis tends to resolve within weeks to months of delivery. There is a higher risk see more premature and small-for-gestational age babies [ 22 ]. Treatment consists of antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition that has not always been included in the classifications of pregnancy dermatoses because it is not associated with primary skin lesions.

Patients present secondary skin lesions caused by scratching. It lichenification bei Psoriasis a hormonally triggered reversible cholestatis, occurring in check this out pregnancy in genetically predisposed women. The incidence in Europe is much lower than in South-America [ 23 ]. The pathogenesis is characterized by an inability to excrete bile salts, causing elevated serum bile acid levels, responsible for pruritus in the mother and influencing negatively the fetal prognosis.

There is an increased risk of lichenification bei Psoriasis, intrapartal fetal distress, and stillbirth. Patients present a sudden-onset pruritus that starts in the palmoplantar regions but becomes very quickly generalized to the entire body. Due to scratching and rubbing, patients present secondary linear excoriations and prurigo nodularis lesions on the extensor surfaces of lichenification bei Psoriasis arms and legs.

Treatment consists of ursodeoxycholic acid which reduces serum bile acid levels. This treatment lichenification bei Psoriasis maternal pruritus and also fetal prognosis. Recurrences occur in next pregnancies and in case of oral contraceptive treatment. A prospective study on pruritic skin diseases in pregnancy had demonstrated a higher prevalence of atopic eczema.

This finding was not taken into consideration in former classifications. These eczematous lesions could be related to the typical dominance of the Th-2 immunity observed during pregnancy. In order to prevent fetal rejection, normal pregnancy is characterized by a lower Th-1 cytokine production and an enhanced Th-2 cytokine production [ 26 ].

Atopic dermatitis is considered to be a Th-2 dominant disease. The Th-2 shift associated with pregnancy may explain the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis during pregnancy. The skin lesions can be divided in either eczematous type skin E-type changes or prurigo type lesions P-type [ 20 ]. The eczematous type lesions are located in the classical localizations like the lichenification bei Psoriasis, the neck, the presternal region, and the flexure sides.

The prurigo lesions occur on the extensor surfaces of the extremities. Fetal prognosis is unaffected. Recurrences in later pregnancies are to expect. The treatment consists in the first place of topical corticosteroids. In severe cases, systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, and ultraviolet B phototherapy may be considered.

Treating pruritic diseases in pregnancy remains frequently a challenge. Most of the time topical corticosteroids and antihistamines will lichenification bei Psoriasis treatment of lichenification bei Psoriasis. Little is known about the effects of local corticosteroids on the fetus.

A recent European evidence-based guideline suggests the following lichenification bei Psoriasis [ 27 ]. There are no data available to determine if newer lipophilic topical corticosteroids mometasone furoate, fluticasone propionate, and methylprednisolone aceponate are associated with a lower risk of fetal growth restriction. On theoretical grounds they have a more favourable side-effect profile.

Systemic lichenification bei Psoriasis have a greater potential for fetotoxicity than local corticosteroids because of a greater bioavailability. They are associated with a lichenification bei Psoriasis in fetal birth weight and an increase in preterm delivery. There is also a lack of knowledge concerning the use of antihistamines during pregnancy.

The older, sedating antihistamines such as dimethindene and clemastine lichenification bei Psoriasis considered as safe because they are already prescribed for very long time [ Juckreiz Genitalien ].

Regarding the use of hydroxyzine during the first trimester, reports concerning a slight higher risk of malformation [ 30 ] and risk of neonatal seizures in case of use in late pregnancy [ 31 ] invite cautiousness. The antihistamines of the second generation, such as cetirizine, loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, and levocetirizine provoking low or no sedation, are categorized as medications of which we do not have extensive information about use in humans but animal studies could not show evidence of embryotoxicity or teratogenicity [ 29 ].

Loratadine and cetirizine are among the second generation antihistamines the ones best studied. They can be prescribed after the first trimester in case of well-considered indications.

Administration just before or after the birth has to be avoided. Atrophic vulvitis is a common complaint of postmenopausal women. Estrogens have a proliferative influence on the vulvovaginal epithelium and enhance the circulation and the hydration of the skin and connective tissue [ 32 ]. The decrease in estrogens is responsible for a thinner epithelium, a loss of turgor, and a decline of the fat depots of the labia majora.

The skin lichenification bei Psoriasis vulnerable and dry and is atrophic, erythematous, and desquamative. Patients complain of itching and a burning sensation. Due to loss of glycogen in the vulvar epithelium the colonization of lactobacilli is decreased. Lactobacilli lichenification bei Psoriasis als es möglich ist, die Plaques der Psoriasis verschmieren acid from glycogen and produces so an acid pH lichenification bei Psoriasis 32 ].

A higher pH creates a favorable environment for pathogenic organisms. The treatment consists in the first place of topical estrogen therapy. The systemic resorption is negligible. It is only the last years that there are an increasing number of publications on female specific pruritus. Girls and women may experience during the different age groups a series of pruritic dermatoses as shown in Table 1.

These diseases may have a high impact on quality of life. It is therefore of outmost important to recognize them early and to treat them adequately.

We have still the impression that until now these specific female itch entities are underdiagnosed. Lichenification bei Psoriasis, we focused on inflammatory diseases.

Nevertheless, we want to mention briefly that especially in elderly women always malignant lesions have to be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of pruritic vulvar diseases. The author declares that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

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Journal List Biomed Res Int v. Published online Mar Received Nov 7; Accepted Feb 5. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract Pruritus is check this out frequent symptom in many dermatological diseases. Introduction Pruritus is a frequent symptom in many dermatological diseases. Atopic and Contact Dermatitis The commonest vulvar dermatosis in both adults and children is dermatitis.

Lichen Sclerosus Lichen sclerosus LS is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown go here first described by Hallopeau in as an atrophic form of lichen planus [ 9 ]. Lichen Planus The prevalence of lichen planus LP in the genital area is much lower than lichen sclerosus [ 11 ]. Lichen Simplex Chronicus The clinical presentation of lichen simplex chronicus is also typical on the vulva: Psoriasis Psoriatic lesions on the vulva are more common in children than in adults.

Infectious Vulvovaginitis In prepubertal girls a group A betahemolytic streptococcal infection can cause vulvar symptoms.

Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy Polymorphic eruption of lichenification bei Psoriasis previously known here pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy occurs in the latest pregnancy weeks or immediately postpartum. Pemphigoid Gestationis Pemphigoid gestationis, formally known as herpes gestationis, is a rare bullous autoimmune disease, which normally occurs in the second half of the lichenification bei Psoriasis or immediately postpartum.

Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is man Zinksalbe wie verwenden Psoriasis für condition that has lichenification bei Psoriasis always been included in the classifications of pregnancy dermatoses because it is not associated with primary skin lesions.

Atopic Eruption of Pregnancy Ambros-Rudolph lichenification bei Psoriasis al. Treatment during Pregnancy Treating pruritic diseases in pregnancy remains frequently a challenge.

Atrophic Vulvitis Atrophic vulvitis is a common complaint of postmenopausal women. Conclusion It is only the last years that there are an increasing number dieser Sterne mit Psoriasis Acute publications on female specific pruritus. Conflict of Interests The author declares that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this more info. Rimoin LP, Kwatra SG, Yosipovitch G.

Female-specific pruritus frome childhood to postmenopause: Vulval disease in pre-pubertal girls. Australasian Journal of Dermatology. Farage MA, Miller KW, Ledger WJ. Determining the cause of vulvovaginal symptoms. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Patients with vulval pruritus: Haverhoek E, Reid Go here, Gordon L, Marshman G, Wood J, Selva-Nayagam P. Prospective study of patch testing in patients with vulval pruritus.

Allergic contact dermatitis of the vulva. Lewis FM, Shah M, Gawkrodger DJ. Contact sensitivity in pruritus vulvae: American Journal of Contact Dermatitis. Contact dermatitis of the vulva. Zendell K, Edwards L. Lichen sclerosus with vaginal involvement: Simpkin S, Oakley A. Clinical review of patients with vulval lichen sclerosus: Olsson A, Selva-Nayagam P, Oehler MK.

McPherson T, Cooper S. Vulval lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. Simpson RC, Thomas KS, Leighton P, Murphy R. Diagnostic criteria for erosive lichen planus affecting the vulva: British Journal of Dermatology. Chew A, Stefanato CM, Savarese I, Neill SM, Fenton DA, Lewis FM.

Clinical patterns of lichen planopilaris in patients with vulval lichen planus. Zamirska A, Reich A, Berny-Moreno J, Salomon J, Szepietowski JC. Vulvar pruritus and burning sensation in women with psoriasis. Smeekens SP, van de Veerdonk FL, Kullberg BJ, Netea MG. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

Ilkit M, Guzel AB. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis: Critical Reviews in Microbiology. Mendling W, Brasch J. Guideline vulvovaginal candidosis of the german society for gynecology and obstetrics, the working group for infections and infectimmunology in gynecology and obstetrics, the german society of dermatology, the board of german dermatologists and the german speaking lichenification bei Psoriasis society.

Donders G, Bellen G, Byttebier G, et al. Individualized decreasing-dose maintenance fluconazole regimen for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis ReCiDiF trial American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The specific dermatoses of pregnancy revisited and reclassified: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy: Lammert F, Marschall H-U, Glantz A, Matern S.

Intrahepatic cholestasis lichenification bei Psoriasis pregnancy: Atopic lichenification bei Psoriasis of pregnancy. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Immunology of the cutaneous disorders of pregnancy.

International Journal of Dermatology. Psoriasis kann auftreten, wenn C-C, Kirtschig G, Aberer W, et al. Evidence-based S3 guideline on topical corticosteroids in pregnancy.

Chi CC, Wang SH, Mayon-White Lichenification bei Psoriasis, Wojnarowska F. Pregnancy outcomes after maternal exposure to topical corticosteroids: Allergische Erkrankungen bei Schwangeren.

Gilboa SM, Strickland MJ, Olshan AF, Werler MM, Correa A. Use of antihistamine medications during early pregnancy and isolated major malformations. Birth Defects Research Part A. Serreau R, Komiha M, Blanc F, Guillot F, Jacqz-Aigrain E. Neonatal seizures associated with maternal hydroxyzine hydrochloride in late pregnancy. Articles from BioMed Research International are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Publishing Corporation.

Article PubReader ePub beta PDF K Citation. Support Center Support Center. Please review our privacy policy. National Library of Medicine Rockville PikeBethesda MDUSA Policies and Guidelines Contact.

Healing Lichen Sclerosus

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